Baroque - The art style or art movement of the Counter-Reformation in the seventeenth century. Although some features appear in Dutch art, the Baroque style was limited mainly to Catholic countries. It is a style in which painters, sculptors, and architects sought emotion, movement, and variety in their works. (pr. broke)

 


Examples:

 

Paolo Veronese (Caliari) (Italian, c. 1528-1588)

 

 

Sofonisba Anguissola (or Anguisciola) (Italian, 1535/40-1625). See feminist art.

 

 

Paul Bril (Flemish, 1554-1626)

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAnnibale Carracci (Italian, 1560-1609), The Virgin Appearing to St. Luke and St. Catherine, 1592, oil on canvas, 4.01 x 2.26 m, Louvre.

 

 

Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi) (Italian, Lombard, 1571/73-1610), The Musicians, c. 1595, oil on canvas, 36 1/4 x 46 5/8 inches (92.1 x 118.4 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.) See Caravaggisti.

 

 

Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi), The Crucifixion of St. Andrew, 1607, oil on canvas, 202.5 x 152.7 cm, Cleveland Museum of Art.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftCaravaggio, Medusa, oil on a circular convex leather shield, diameter 55.5 cm, Uffizi Gallery, Florence. See mythology and snake.

 

 

 

Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish, 1577-1640), The Alliance of Earth and Water (The River Scheldt and Antwerp), c. 1618, oil on canvas, 87 1/2 x 71 inches (222.5 x 180.5 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. Also see Rubénisme.

 

 

Peter Paul Rubens, Isabella Brant, c. 1620, oil on wood, Cleveland Museum of Art.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftPeter Paul Rubens, Bacchus, 1638/40, oil on canvas (transferred from panel), 75 x 63 1/2 inches (191 x 161.3 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

 

Frans Hals (Dutch, c. 1581-1666), Young Man and Woman in an Inn ("Yonker Ramp and His Sweetheart"), 1623, oil on canvas, 41 1/2 x 31 1/4 inches (105.4 x 79.4 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

 

Bernardo Strozzi (Italian, 1581-1644)

 

 

see thumbnail to leftGerrit van Honthorst (Dutch, 1590-1656), The Denial of St. Peter, about 1620-1625, oil on canvas, 43 1/2 x 57 inches, Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Also see Caravaggisti and Dutch art.

 

 

Simon Vouet (French, 1590-1649)

 

 

 

José (Jusepe) de Ribera (Spanish, 1591-1652), The Club-Footed Boy, 1642, oil on canvas, 1.64 x 0.93 m, Louvre.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJosé (Jusepe) de Ribera, The Holy Family with Saints Anne and Catherine of Alexandria, 1648, oil on canvas, 82 1/2 x 60 3/4 inches (209.6 x 154.3 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

 

Georges De La Tour (French, 1593-1652)

 

 

Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian, 1593-1652/53) See feminist art.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJacob Jordaens (Flemish, 1593-1678), The Bean King, c. 1638, oil on canvas (transferred from old canvas), 62 x 83 inches (160 x 213 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

Louis Le Nain (French, c. 1593-1648), The Dairymaid's Family, 1640s, oil on canvas, 20 x 2e3 inches (51 x 59 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftNicolas Poussin (French, 1593/94-1665), Parnassus, oil on canvas, 145 x 197 cm, Prado Museum, Madrid. Also see Neoclassicism and Poussinisme.

 

 

Nicolas Poussin, The Death of Germanicus, 1627, oil on canvas, 58 x 77 3/8 inches, Minneapolis Institute of Arts. See history painting.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftNicolas Poussin, The Abduction of the Sabine Women, probably 1633-34, oil on canvas, 60 7/8 x 82 5/8 inches (154.6 x 209.9 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

 

Nicolas Poussin, Landscape with Polyphemus, oil on canvas, 149 x 197.5 cm, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

Copy after Nicolas Poussin, Adoration of the Golden Calf, 16th - 17th century, oil on canvas, 38 x 52 inches (96.5 x 132 cm), Legion of Honor, San Francisco.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftArtemisia Gentileschi (Italian, 1593-1651/53), Judith Beheading Holofernes, 1620, oil on canvas, 78 3/8 x 64 inches (199 x 162.5 cm), Uffizi, Florence. See Caravaggisti and feminism and feminist art.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightArtemisia Gentileschi (Italian, 1593-1651/53), Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, c. 1625, oil on canvas, 1.8 x 1.4 m (72 1/2 x 55 3/4 inches, Detroit Institute of Art, MI. See frame.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftGeorges de La Tour (French, 1593-1652), The Fortune Teller, probably 1630s, oil on canvas, 40 1/8 x 48 5/8 inches (101.9 x 123.5 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.) See narrative art.

 

Pietro da Cortona (Italian, 1596-1669), Christ on the Cross with the Virgin Mary, Mary Magdalene, and Saint John, about 1661, pen and brown ink, with gray-brown wash, heightened with white body color over black chalk, 15 7/8 x 10 7/16 inches (40.3 x 26.5 cm), J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA.

 

see thumbnail to leftGianlorenzo Bernini (Italian, 1598-1680), Boy with a Dragon, Rome, 1614-1620, marble, 22 x 20 x 16 inches (55.7 x 52 x 41.5 cm), J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightGianlorenzo Bernini, Dove of the Holy Spirit, c. 1660.

 

This stained glass window is the highly dramatic focal point of see thumbnail to leftThe Throne of Saint Peter, 1657-66, marble, white and gilt stucco, and stained glass, overall height about 100 feet, Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican, Rome.

The Throne is a huge Baroque sculptural composition behind the altar, in the apse of the basilica.

 

The Throne of Saint Peter is first seen, when approaching it, as it is framed by Bernini's see thumbnail to rightBaldacchino, 1624-33.

See baldacchino.

 

 

Francisco de Zurbarán (Spanish, 1598-1664), The Young Virgin, c. 1632-33, oil on canvas, 46 x 37 inches (116.8 x 94 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

 

 

Diego Velázquez (Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez) (Spanish, 1599-1660), Juan de Pareja (c. 1610-1670), 1650, oil on canvas, 32 x 27 1/2 inches (81.3 x 69.9 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftDiego Velázquez, The Luncheon (Three Men at a Table), c. 1617/18, oil on canvas, 43 x 40 inches (108.5 x 102 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

 

 

Diego Velázquez, The Family of Philip IV, or "The Maids of Honor (Las Meninas)", c. 1656, oil on canvas, (318 x 276 cm), Prado Museum, Madrid.

This is a group portrait of an exceptional sort:

 

In the center-foreground is the see thumbnail to leftinfanta (princess) attended by her meninas (maids of honor) — companions including two young ladies, a dwarf, a child, a dog, a nun, and a tutor.

 

This little party is visiting the studio where Velázquez stands before his canvas. We see the back of it, perched upon an easel. The painter and most of the others look toward the king and queen as they pose for the painting in progress.

 

see thumbnail to leftThe king and queen would not actually be visible in this picture if their reflected image could not be seen in a mirror placed on the opposite wall. Altogether this is a view, which could only be seen by the king and queen themselves, as they pose for their portrait. The point of view of every person who gazes upon this painting is that of the king and queen of Spain. A very privileged vantage indeed!

 

Further increasing the sense that we are present at a specific moment is our glimpse of a man in the distant doorway, pausing as he descends or ascends — either entering or exiting the chamber. See after, Cubism, genre, and Pop Art.

 

 

In the manner of Diego Velázquez, Dona Mariana of Austria, Queen of Spain, 1649, oil on canvas, 27 3/8 x 22 inches, Legion of Honor, San Francisco.

 

see thumbnail to leftClaude Lorrain (Claude Gellée) (French, 1600/5?-1682), Pastoral Landscape, 1638, oil on canvas, 38 1/4 x 51 1/4 inches, Minneapolis Institute of Arts. See landscape.

 

 

Claude Lorrain (Claude Gellée), View of Tivoli at Sunset, 1644, oil on canvas, 39 1/2 x 53 1/2 inches (100 x 136 cm), Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA.

 

 

Claude Lorrain (Claude Gellée), The Ford, possibly 1636, oil on canvas, 29 1/4 x 39 3/4 inches (74.3 x 101 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftClaude Lorrain (Claude Gellée), Sunrise, possibly 1646-47, oil on canvas, 40 1/2 x 52 3/4 inches (102.9 x 134 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

Claude Lorrain (Claude Gellée), View of La Crescenza, 1648-50, oil on canvas, 15 1/4 x 22 7/8 inches (38.7 x 58.1 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftRembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, Amsterdam, 1606-1669), Flora, c. 1635, oil on canvas, 49 x 40 inches (125 x 101 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, Nude Woman with a Snake, about 1637, red chalk heightened with white body color, 9 11/16 x 5 7/16 inches (24.7 x 13.7 cm), J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA. See nude.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftRembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, Aristotle with a Bust of Homer, 1653, oil on canvas, 56 1/2 x 53 3/4 inches (143.5 x 136.5 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftRembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, The Return of the Prodigal Son, c. 1668/69, oil on canvas, 103 x 81 inches (262 x 205 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

 

Francois Girardon (French, 1628-1715), Model for the Equestrian Statue of Louis XIV, bronze, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. See equestrian statue and model.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJacob Isaacksz van Ruisdael, The Marsh, 1660s, oil on canvas, 28 1/2 x 39 inches (72.5 x 99 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

 

 

Jan (or Johannes) Vermeer (Dutch, Delft, 1632-1675), Young Woman with a Water Jug, c. 1660-67, oil on canvas, 18 x 16 inches (45.7 x 40.6 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJan (or Johannes) Vermeer, The Glass of Wine, c. 1661/62, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. See drapery.

 

 

 

André-Charles Boulle (French, 1642-1732), Wardrobe (alternatively known as an Armoire), Paris, around 1700, made of oak and pine, with ebony, tortoiseshell, inlaid (marquetry) with brass and tin veneering, pewter, horn, and gilded bronze (ormolu), 102 x 58 x 25 inches (260 x 148 x 64 cm), Louvre. See furniture.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftGiuseppe Mazzuoli (Italian, c.1644-1725), The Death of Adonis, 1709, marble, height 193 cm, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

Luisa Roldán (Spanish, 1650-1704), sculptor; Luis Antonio de los Arcos, polychromer, gilder, St. Ginés de la Jara, about 1692, polychromed wood (pine and cedar) with glass eyes, height 69 1/4 inches (176 cm), J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA.

 

 

Jean Antoine Watteau (French, 1684-1721).

 

 

see thumbnail to leftGiovanni Battista Tiepolo (Italian, 1696-1770), Maecenas Presenting the Liberal Arts to Emperor Augustus, c. 1745, oil on canvas, 27 x 35 inches (69.5 x 89 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

see thumbnail to left

 

 

see thumbnail to the rightNicola Salvi (Italian, 1697-1751), Trevi Fountain (Fontana di Trevi) (see two much closer and larger views: at night and at day), 1629-1762, Rome. This is the largest, most ambitious, and most famous of the great Baroque fountains of Rome. The allegorical subject of this sculptural ensemble is the taming of the waters. Tumbling about, water and stonework appear as a lively stage set, turning the small square that surrounds it into something like a theater. The fountain is set against the back of the Palazzo Poli, which was given a new facade of Corinthian columns that link the two main stories, and flank a triumphant arch with a large niche representing the palace of Neptune. In the central niche is Neptune, the sea god, riding a winged chariot guided by tritons through the gushing waters. The chariot is drawn by winged horses, led by a pair of tritons. The Trevi Fountain sits at the end of the Aqua Vergine, one of the ancient aqueducts which supplied water to Rome. Now it supplies the fountain's water. Pope Clement XII commissioned Salvi to design the fountain in 1730. It was completed in 1762, and called the Trevi because its position at the intersection of three streets — tre vie. There is a frequently cited legend that if you throw a coin over your shoulder into the fountain, your return to Rome is guaranteed.

 

François Boucher (French, 1703-1770). See Rococo.

 

 

Related Links:

 

 

 

In architecture, Francesco Borromini (Italian, 1599-1667) used curved surfaces to create a pattern of light and dark as well as a sense of movement on his church façades. Here's a link to images of Baroque architecture. Also, this term is used (with a small "b") to describe art of any period which is reminiscent of this style, exaggerated in some dramatic way, or having rich and sometimes bizarre ornamentation.

 

Also see Caravaggisti, Enlightenment, Rococo, seicento, settecento, and tenebroso or tenebrism.

 

 

 

 

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