ArtLex Art Dictionary

 

 

 

DDutch art - Also known as art of the Netherlands, and as art of the principal state of Holland.

Making generalizations about the visual culture of any group of people is a crude endeavor, especially with a culture as diverse as that of the Netherlands. With this thought in mind, know that this survey, as any must be, is tremendously limited in its breadth and depth.

[Expect a more in-depth article to appear here soon.]

 

Examples:

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJan van Eyck (Dutch, died 1441), The Arnolfini Marriage [aka Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife], 1434, oil on wood panel, 81.8 x 59.7 cm, National Gallery, London. see thumbnail to rightA convex mirror hangs on the wall behind the bride and groom. In this mirror is a reflection of the scene in the room. The frame of the mirror contains ten rondels which are scenes from the life of Christ. See convex, frame, mirror, and symbol.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftCount de Meurs, (Netherlandish), Drawings in a Letter, 1493, Library of Zutphen, Netherlands. Manuscripts dating back to the Middle Ages often used sequential pictures accompanied by text, or sometimes even used text-balloons for captions as in this example. See cartoon.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightQuentin Metsys (Dutch, 1465/6-1530), The Banker and his Wife, 1514, oil on panel, 0.705 x 0.670 m, Louvre. See narrative art.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJan van der Straet (Stradanus) (Dutch, 1523-1604), Painter's Studio, woodcut. As the master paints a large canvas with a picture of St. George and the Dragon at the center, an apprentice paints a portrait from a model at left, two make drawings and one mixes colors in the foreground, two more grind pigments into oil on the right, and a last one carries a canvas toward the doorway. Windows let in natural light from several angles. There are numerous shelves, drawers and tables for supplies and works-in-progress. See studio.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightNetherlands, 1570, Dalmatic, polychrome wool and silk, interlocking tapestry weave, with embroidery accentuating details of the design, 43 1/4 x 45 1/2 inches (109.8 x 115.6 cm), Los Angeles County Museum of Art. This is part of a rare set of Roman Catholic priest's vestments to survive the Protestant Reformation. See costume.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAdrien de Vries (Dutch, c. 1546-1626), Mercury and Psyche, 1593, bronze, 84 1/2 x 36 x 28 inches (215 x 92 x 72 cm), Louvre. See Mannerism and mythology.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJacques de Gheyn the Elder (Dutch, 1565-1629), Vanitas Still Life, 1603, oil on wood panel, 32 1/2 x 21 1/4 inches (82.6 x 54 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See niche, still life, and vanitas.

 

 

Jan Brueghel the Elder (Dutch , 1568-1625)

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAmbrosius Bosschaert the Elder (Dutch, 1573-1621), Bouquet of Flowers in an Arch, c. 1620, oil on copper, 0.23 x 0.17 m, Louvre. See still life.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightFrans Hals (Dutch, c. 1581-1666), Young Man and Woman in an Inn ("Yonker Ramp and His Sweetheart"), 1623, oil on canvas, 41 1/2 x 31 1/4 inches (105.4 x 79.4 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.) See Baroque.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftHendrick Terbrugghen (Dutch, 1588-1629), The Gamblers, 1623, oil on canvas, 33 x 44 7/8 inches, Minneapolis Institute of Arts.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightGerrit van Honthorst (Dutch, 1590-1656), The Denial of St. Peter, about 1620-1625, oil on canvas, 43 1/2 x 57 inches, Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Also see Caravaggisti.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftWillem Claesz. Heda (Dutch, 1594-1680/2), Breakfast with a Crab, 1648, oil on canvas, 46 1/2 x 46 1/2 inches (118 x 118 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. Heda was the master of the Dutch ontbijt or breakfast piece. See still life.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJan Josephsz. van Goyen (Dutch, 1596-1656), The Pelkus Gate near Utrecht, 1646, oil on wood panel, 14 1/2 x 22 1/2 inches (36.8 x 57.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftSalomon van Ruysdael, Drawing the Eel, 1650s, oil on wood panel, 29 1/2 x 41 3/4 inches (74.9 x 106 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See landscape.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAert van der Neer (Dutch, 1603/4-1677), Landscape at Sunset, oil on canvas, 20 x 28 1/8 inches (50.8 x 71.4 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See landscape.

 

 

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, Amsterdam, 1606-1669), The Raising of Lazarus, c. 1630, oil on wood panel, 37 7/8 x 32 inches (96.2 x 81.3 cm), Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftRembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, Nicolaes Ruts, 1631, oil on panel, 46 x 34 3/8 inches (116.8 x 87.3 cm), Frick Collection, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightRembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, Flora, c. 1635, oil on canvas, 49 x 40 inches (125 x 101 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftRembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, Aristotle with a Bust of Homer, 1653, oil on canvas, 56 1/2 x 53 3/4 inches (143.5 x 136.5 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

 

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, Christ Presented to the People, 1655, drypoint, 14 x 17 7/8 inches (35.6 x 45.4 cm), Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightRembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, Self-Portrait, 1658, oil on canvas, 52 5/8 x 40 7/8 inches (133.7 x 103.8 cm), Frick Collection, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftRembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, The Return of the Prodigal Son, c. 1668/69, oil on canvas, 103 x 81 inches (262 x 205 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

Judith Leyster (Dutch, 1609-1660), The Concert, c. 1633, oil on canvas, 24 x 34 1/4 inches, National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, DC.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightDutch, Rotterdam, Ketubah, 1648, on parchment, Israel Museum, Jerusalem. See Jewish art and ketubah.

 

 

Adriaen van Ostade (Dutch, 1610-1685), Rustic Interior with a Man Feeding a Child, 1648, etching and drypoint, Michael C. Carlos Museum, Emery U, Atlanta, GA. See Baroque and genre.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAdriaen van Ostade, Reading the News at the Weavers' Cottage, 1673, pen and brown ink, watercolor, white heightening, traces of graphite; framing lines by the artist (?) in brown ink and gold, 9 5/8 x 7 15/16 inches (24.4 x 20.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See genre.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightFrans Post (Dutch, c. 1612-1680), A Brazilian Landscape, 1650, oil on wood panel, 24 x 36 inches (61 x 91.4 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See landscape.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftWillem Kalf (Dutch, 1619-1693), Still Life with Fruit, Glassware, and a Wan-li Bowl, 1659, oil on canvas, 23 x 20 inches (58.4 x 50.8 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See still life.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightPhilips Koninck (Dutch, 1619-1688), Wide River Landscape, c. 1648, oil on canvas, 16 1/4 x 22 7/8 inches (41.3 x 58.1 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See landscape.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftPhilips Koninck, An Extensive Wooded Landscape, oil on canvas, 32 3/4 x 44 5/8 inches (83.2 x 113.3 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAelbert Cuyp (Dutch, 1620-1691), Dordrecht: Sunrise, c. 1650, oil on canvas, 40 1/8 x 63 3/8 inches (102 x 161 cm), Frick Collection, NY. Also see seascape.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJan Steen (Dutch, 1626-1679), The Idlers, c. 1660, oil on wood panel, 15 x 12 inches (39 x 30 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJacob Isaacksz. van Ruisdael (Dutch, 1628/29-1682), Landscape with a Village in the Distance, 1646, oil on wood panel, 30 x 43 inches (76.2 x 109.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See landscape.

 

 

Jacob Isaacksz. van Ruisdael (Dutch, 1628/29-1682), Landscape with a Footbridge, 1652, oil on canvas, 38 3/4 x 62 5/8 inches (98.4 x 159.1 cm), Frick Collection, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJacob Isaacksz. van Ruisdael, The Marsh, 1660s, oil on canvas, 28 1/2 x 39 inches (72.5 x 99 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

Pieter de Hooch (Dutch, 1629-1684).

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJan (or Johannes) Vermeer (Dutch, Delft, 1632-1675), Officer and Laughing Girl, 1655-1660, oil on canvas (lined), 19 7/8 inches x 18 1/8 inches (50.48 cm x 46.04 cm), Frick Collection, NY.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJan (or Johannes) Vermeer, Young Woman with a Water Jug, c. 1660-67, oil on canvas, 18 x 16 inches (45.7 x 40.6 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJan (or Johannes) Vermeer, The Glass of Wine, c. 1661/62, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. See drapery.

 

 

Nicolaes Maes (Dutch, 1634-1693)

 

 

see thumbnail to leftMeindert Hobbema (Dutch, 1638-1709), Entrance to a Village, c. 1665, oil on wood panel, 29 1/2 x 43 3/8 inches (74.9 x 110.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See landscape.

 

 

Hubert van Ravesteyn (Dutch, 1638 - c.1691)

 

 

Anonymous, Dutch, Delft, Covered Jar (possibly "The Golden Flowerpot"), c. late 17th-early 18th century, tin-glazed earthenware, Columbia Art Museum, SC.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftVincent van Gogh (Dutch, 1853-1890), A Corridor in the Asylum, late May or June, 1889, black chalk and gouache on pink Ingres paper, 25 5/8 x 19 5/16 inches (65.1 x 49.1 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightPiet Mondrian (Dutch, 1872-1944), Broadway Boogie Woogie, 1942-43, oil on canvas, 50 x 50 inches (127 x 127 cm), at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. See De Stijl.

 

 

Theo van Doesburg (Dutch, 1883-1931). See De Stijl.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftGerrit T. Rietveld (Dutch, 1884-1964), Schroder House, 1924-25, steel beams and columns, wood and concrete, Utrecht, The Netherlands. See De Stijl.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMaurits Cornelis Escher (Dutch, 1898-1972), Balcony, 1945, lithograph, 11 3/4 x 9 1/4 inches (29.7 x 23.4 cm), National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. In the center of this picture of a hillside town, Escher said he tried to break up the paper's flatness by "pretend[ing] to give it a blow with my fist at the back, but . . . the paper remains flat, and I have only created the illusion of an illusion." See flat and illusion.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftMaurits Cornelis Escher, Other World, 1947, color wood engraving and woodcut printed in black, red-brown, and green, printed from three blocks; image 12 1/2 x 10 1/4 inches (31.8 x 26.1 cm), sheet 39.2 x 32.9 cm; Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA. Depending upon which of this room's three windows we look out, we find our point of view is completely different and irreconsilable from each of the others.

 

 

Maurits Cornelis Escher, Up and Down, 1947, lithograph, 19 3/4 x 8 1/8 inches (50.3 x 20.5 cm).

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMaurits Cornelis Escher, Drawing Hands, 1948, lithograph, 11 1/8 x 13 1/8 inches (282 x 332 mm).

 

 

see thumbnail to leftMaurits Cornelis Escher, Relativity, 1953, lithograph, 11 1/8 x 11 5/8 inches (282 x 294 mm), National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. Here are three worlds, each with their own gravitational forces exist simultaneously, operating perpendicularly to one other.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMaurits Cornelis Escher, Convex and Concave, 1955, lithograph. See convex and concave.

 

 

Maurits Cornelis Escher, Print Gallery, 1956, lithograph, image 31.9 x 31.7 cm, sheet 41.2 x 40.4 cm, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA. See gallery.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftMaurits Cornelis Escher, Belvedere, 1958, lithograph, 8 1/4 x 11 5/8 inches (462 x 295 mm), National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. This belvedere has three stories, but its drawing results in an optical illusion. Escher has employed a hybrid of linear perspective that produces a mixture of two possibilities. Note how the pillars connect the second to the third story.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMaurits Cornelis Escher, Waterfall, 1961, lithograph,15 x 11 3/4 inches (380 x 300 mm).

 

 

 

 

Related Links:

 

 

Also see architecture, Art Nouveau, Baroque, costume, design, Danish art, De Stijl, drawing, engraving, etching, flags of Europe, Fluxus, French art, furniture, genre, German art, history painting, illumination, jewelry, landscape, lithography, Madonna, Middle Ages, museum, mythology, narrative art, Northern Renaissance, nude, pastel, photography, porcelain, portrait, seascape, self-portrait, Spanish art, still life, textile, trompe l'oeil, and watercolor, among many other articles.

 

 

 

 


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