LLuminism or luminism, and luminists - The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s, characterized by effects of light in landscapes, poetic atmosphere, often sublime, through the use of aerial perspective, and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. It is related to, and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865), John F. Kensett (1816-1872), Martin J. Heade (1819-1904), Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900), and Frederick E. Church (1826-1900).

 

Examples:

Listed chronologically by artist's birth year

 

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see thumbnail to rightFitz Hugh Lane (American, 1804-1865), Stage Rocks and Western Shore of Gloucester Outer Harbor, 1857, oil on canvas, collection of John Wilmerding.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFitz Hugh Lane, Ship Starlight, c. 1860, oil on canvas, 30 x 50 inches (76.20 x 127.00 cm), Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, OH. See nocturne.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightFitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865), Lumber Schooners at Evening on Penobscot Bay, 1863, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865), Brace's Rock, Eastern Point, Gloucester, c. 1864, oil on canvas, collection of John Wilmderding.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightGeorge Caleb Bingham (American, 1811-1879), Fur Traders Descending the Missouri, c. 1845, oil on canvas, 29 x 36 1/2 inches (73.7 x 92.7 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJohn Frederick Kensett (1816-1872), An Ilex Tree on Lake Albano, Italy, 1846, oil on canvas, collection of John Wilmerding.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJohn Frederick Kensett (American, 1816-1872), Sunrise among the Rocks of Paradise, Newport, 1859, oil on canvas, 18 x 30 inches (46.1 x 76.2 cm), Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA. See Hudson River School.

 

 

John Frederick Kensett, Rondout Creek, 1862, oil on canvas, New Britain Museum of Art, CT.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJohn Frederick Kensett, Lake George, 1869, oil on canvas, 44 1/8 x 66 3/8 inches (112.1 x 168.6 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMartin Johnson Heade (American, 1819-1904), Approaching Thunder Storm, 1859, oil on canvas, 28 x 44 inches (71.1 x 111.8 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftMartin Johnson Heade, Twilight, Singing Beach, 1863, oil on canvas, 20 x 36 inches, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA.

 

 

Martin Johnson Heade, Ipswich Marshes, 1867, oil on canvas, New Britain Museum of Art, CT.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMartin Johnson Heade, The Great Swamp, 1868, oil on canvas, 14 7/8 x 30 1/8 inches, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftMartin Johnson Heade, Sunlight and Shadow: The Newbury Marshes, c. 1871-1875, oil on canvas, collection of John Wilmerding.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMartin Johnson Heade, Salt Marsh at Southport, Connecticut, c. 1875-81, oil on canvas, 9 7/8 x 20 1/8 inches (25.1 x 51.4 cm), North Carolina Art Museum, Raleigh.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJasper Francis Cropsey (American , 1823-1900), View of Greenwood Lake, New Jersey, 1845, oil on canvas, 30 3/4 x 40 3/4 inches (78.1 x 103.5 cm), Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJasper Francis Cropsey, Lake Wawayanda, Sussex County, New Jersey, 1870, oil on canvas, New Britain Museum of Art, CT.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftSanford Robinson Gifford (American, 1823-1880), Lake Nemi, Italy, oil on canvas, 1856-57, Toledo Museum of Art, OH.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightSanford Robinson Gifford, Kauterskill Clove, 1862, oil on canvas, 48 x 39 7/8 inches (121.9 x 101.3 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See luminosity.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFrederick E. Church (American, 1826-1900), Newport Mountain, Mount Desert, 1851, oil on canvas, collection of John Wilmerding.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightFrederick E. Church, Falls of Niagara, 1857, oil on canvas, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. See Hudson River School.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFrederick E. Church, The Icebergs, 1861, oil on canvas, 64 1/2 x 112 1/2 inches (163.8 x 285.8 cm), Dallas Museum of Art.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightFrederic Edwin Church, In the Andes, 1878, oil on canvas, 15 3/16 x 22 3/16 inches (38.57 x 56.35 cm), Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, OH.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAlbert Bierstadt (American, born in Germany, 1830-1902), Yosemite Falls, c. 1865-70, oil on canvas, Worcester Art Museum, MA.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAlbert Bierstadt, Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, 1868, oil on canvas, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAlbert Bierstadt, Sunrise in the Sierras, c. 1872, oil on canvas, 13 1/2 x 18 7/8 inches, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightWilliam Trost Richards (American, 1833-1905), Mount Desert, 1866, painting on gray paper, collection of John Wilmerding.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftNorton Bush (American, 1834-1894), Lake Nicaragua, 1871, oil on canvas, Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, NH.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAlfred T. Bricher (American, 1837-1908), Beach Scene at Sunset, c. 1870, oil on canvas, New Britain Museum of Art, CT.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftThomas Moran (American, 1837-1926), Fiercely the red sun descending/Burned his way along the heavens, c. 1875, oil on canvas, 33 3/8 x 50 1/16 inches (84.8 x 127.1 cm), North Carolina Art Museum, Raleigh.

 

 

 

Also see Hudson River School, isms and -ism, and seascape.

 

 

 

 

 

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