Photographs by photographers born before 1825:
Joseph Nicephore Niépce (French, 1765-1833), View from the Window at Gras (Point de vue pris d'une fenêtre du Gras à Saint-Loup-de-Varennes), 1826, 8 x 6 1/2 inches, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, U of Texas at Austin. This picture is considered the first permanently captured image. Niépce called it a "heliograph," or "sun drawing." It was made by employing a camera obscura, by exposing a pewter plate sensitized with bitumen of Judea for a period of eight hours. Niépce placed his camera in a window of his home in order to capture a view of the neighboring roof tops. This photo was found in London in the 1950s among some letters written by Niépce. Niépce had obtained images as early as 1813, but they gradually faded, because he was unable to fix them.
William Henry Fox Talbot (British, 1800-1877), Wrack, 1839, salted paper print, 22 x 17.5 cm (8 11/16 x 6 7/8 inches), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
William Henry Fox Talbot, Oak Tree in Winter, 1841, salt print, 7 5/8 x 6 17/32 inches, J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA.
William Henry Fox Talbot, Articles of Glass, 1843, salted paper print from calotype negative, Cleveland Museum of Art.
William Henry Fox Talbot, The Boulevards of Paris, 1843, salted paper print from paper negative, .166 x .171 m (6 9/16 x 6 3/4 inches), National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
William Henry Fox Talbot, The Open Door, England, April 1844, salt print from a calotype negative, 5 7/16 x 6 5/8 inches (14.0 x 16.8 cm), J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA.
William Henry Fox Talbot, Lace, 1840s, salted paper print from a paper negative, 9 1/16 x 7 3/8 inches (23 x 18.8 cm), Museum of Modern Art, NY.
Anna Atkins and Anne Dixon (British, London, 19th century), Equisetum sylvaticum, 1853, cyanotype,10 x 7 7/8 inches, J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA.
Hippolyte Bayard (French, 1801-1887), Arrangement of Specimens, Paris, about 1842, direct positive print, 10 15/16 x 8 1/2 inches (27.7 x 21.6 cm), J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA. Bayard invented a photographic process between 1837 and 1839 capable of producing negatives or positives. He created this photographic process independently of the work of Daguerre. Bayard photographed historic monuments during the 1850's.
David Octavius Hill (British, 1802-1870) and Robert Adamson (British, 1821-1848), Newhaven Fishwives, c. 1845, depicted: Newhaven, Scotland, salted paper print from paper negative, 29.5 x 21.7 cm (11 5/8 x 8 9/16 inches), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
John Plumbe, Jr. (American, 1809-1857) photographer, United States Capitol, Washington, D.C., east front elevation, half plate daguerreotype, c. 1846, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Plumbe was one of the first photographers in the United States, taking up the practice very shortly after Samuel F.B. Morse brought the idea from France in 1839. One of the earliest surviving photographs of the Capitol, recording its old copper-sheathed wooden dome.
Albert Sands Southworth (American, 1811-1894) and Josiah Johnson Hawes (American, 1808-1901), Lemuel Shaw, c. 1850, daguerreotype, 21.6 x 16.5 cm (8 1/2 x 6 1/2 inches), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
Édouard Baldus (French, b. Prussia, 1813-1889), Church at Auvers (Église d'Auvers), 1855, salted paper print from waxed paper negative, Cleveland Museum of Art.
Louis-Auguste Bisson (French, 1814-1876), Cleveland, c. 1842-1843, daguerreotype, Cleveland Museum of Art.
Julia Margaret Cameron (English, born India, 1815-1879), Zoe, Maid of Athens, 1866?, albumen silver print from glass negative, 30.1 x 24.5 cm (11 7/8 x 9 5/8 inches), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
Julia Margaret Cameron, The Mountain Nymph, Sweet Liberty, June 1866, albumen print from collodion negative, .361 x .267 m (14 3/16 x 10 1/2 inches), National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
Julia Margaret Cameron, Sir John Herschel, 1867, print by A.L. Coburn, c. 1915, from copy negative of original print platinum print, tinted stock, mechanically varnished, 25.7 x 19.4 cm, George Eastman House, Rochester, NY.
Julia Margaret Cameron, Thomas Carlyle, London, 1867, albumen print, 14 7/16 x 10 3/16 inches (36.4 x 25.8 cm), J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA.
Félix Teynard (French, 1817-1892), Large Speos-View taken from the Sand Slope (Temple of Ramesses II), Abu Simbel (Abou-Sembil. Grand spèos-vue prise de la coulée de sables), 1851-1852 (printed 1853-1854), salted paper print from calotype negative from Égypte et Nubie, sites et monuments les plus intéressants pour l'étude de l'art et de l'histoire, deuxième partie, pl. 153, Cleveland Museum of Art.
Roger Fenton (English, 1819-1869), A Quiet Day In The Mortar Battery, 1855 / print 1856, salted paper print, 23.8 x 34.5 cm, George Eastman House, Rochester, NY.
Roger Fenton, Reclining Odalisque, 1858, salted paper print from glass negative, 28.5 x 39 cm (11 1/4 x 15 3/8 inches), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See odalisque.
Félix Nadar [Gaspard-Félix Tournachon] (French, 1820-1910), Alexandre Dumas père (1802-1870), 1855, salted paper print from collodion wet plate negative, Cleveland Museum of Art.
Félix Nadar [Gaspard-Félix Tournachon] and Adrien Tournachon (French, 1825-1903), Pierrot Laughing, 1855, gelatin-coated salted paper print (vernis-cuir), 27.3 x 19.8 cm (10 3/4 x 7 13/16 inches), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
Félix Nadar, Charles Baudelaire in an Armchair, 1855, unique test on salted paper made from a partly destroyed negative, 28 x 16.5 cm, Musée d'Orsay, Paris. See French art and portrait.
Félix Nadar [Gaspard-Félix Tournachon] (French, 1820-1910), Self-Portrait as an Aeronaut, c. 1863, albumen print carte-de-visite, 3 1/16 x 2 3/16 inches, J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA.
Alexander Gardner (American, 1821-1882), Lincoln on the Battlefield of Antietam, Maryland, October 2, 1862, albumen print, 8 5/8 x 7 3/4 inches (22 x 19.6 cm), J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA.
Mathew B. Brady (American, 1823-1896) Studio, Thomas Cole (1801-1848), daguerreotype, c. 1846, 5 3/8 x 4 inches (13.6 x 10.2 cm), National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Mathew B. Brady Studio, Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885), 1864, albumen silver print, 4 9/16 x 4 3/4 inches (11.6 x 12.1 cm), National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Also see a Photo of Matthew Brady, July 22, 1861, and Selected Civil War Photographs at the Library of Congress.
Matthew B. Brady, General Robert E. Lee and Staff, 1865, Worcester Art Museum, MA.
Mathew Brady Studio, Walt Whitman (1819-1892), c. 1870, albumen silver print, 9 7/16 x 7 3/8 inches (23.9 x 18.7 cm), National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
See other examples of photographs:
Rev. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (aka Lewis Carroll), Thomas Eakins, Robert Howlett, Willaim Henry Jackson, Eadweard Muybridge, Timothy H. O'Sullivan, Jacob Riis, H. P. Robinson, and Carleton E. Watkins.
Jean Eugene Atget, Jessie Tarbox Beals, Anne W. Brigman, Edward Curtis, Frank Jay Haynes, Lewis W. Hine, Gertrude Stanton Käsebier, August Sander, Edward Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, and Clarence H. White.
Berenice Abbott, Brassaï, Alvin Langdon Coburn, Imogen Cunningham, Alfred Eisenstaedt, Gertrude Fehr, André Kertész, Dorothea Lange, Jacques-Henri Lartigue, Man Ray, Albert Renger-Patzsch, Alexander Rodchenko, Ben Shahn, Charles Sheeler, Ralph Steiner, Paul Strand, James Van Der Zee, and Edward Weston.
Ansel Adams, Margaret Bourke-White, Bill Brandt, Manuel Alvarez Bravo, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Harry Callahan, Robert Capa, Ralston Crawford, Robert Doisneau, Harold Edgerton, Walker Evans, Andreas Feininger, Yevgeni Khaldei, Wright Morris, Arnold Newman, Irving Penn, Aaron Siskind, W. Eugene Smith, Lou Stoumen, and Minor White.
Robert Adams, Diane Nemerov Arbus, Neil A. Armstrong, John Baldessari, Paul Caponigro, William Eggleston, Duane Michals, John Pfahl, Kenneth Snelson, David Hockney, and Joel Peter Witkin.
Becky Cohen, Jan Dibbets, Flor Garduño, Barbara Kruger, Annie Leibovitz, Robert Mapplethorpe, Richard Misrach, Tokihiro Sato, Cindy Sherman, Thomas Struth, and William Wegman.
Return to ArtLex's article on photography.
Also see Ambrotype, collodion wet plate, daguerreotype, digital photography, paper, photogram, photogravure, photomontage, photon, photorealism, Photoshop, and photoscreen.