Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood - A group of English artists which formed an association in 1848 to recapture the beauty and simplicity of the medieval world. Their painting style and art movement reacted to the sterility of English art, along with the materialism resulting from England's industrialization. They identified Raphael (Italian, 1483-1520) with the scientific interests of Renaissance art, which they felt had led to modern technological development. They aimed to study nature, to sympathize with what is direct, serious and heartfelt in earlier art, and to infuse their works with literary symbolism, bright colors, and attention to detail.
The founders of the Brotherhood were the painters Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882) [a photo of him by Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, aka Lewis Carroll, English mathematician and writer, author of Alice In Wonderland , as well as photographer, 1832-1898), 1863], William Holman Hunt (1827-1910), John Everett Millais (1829-1896), James Collinson (1825-1881), Frederic George Stephens (1828-1907), sculptor Thomas Woolner (1825-1892), and writer William Michael Rossetti (1829-1919), the painter's brother.
Their initial efforts brought them much condemnation, but in 1851 they gained the support of the influential art critic John Ruskin (English, 1819-1910).
By 1854 however, the Brotherhood
had fallen apart. Apart from it came a second wave of Pre-Raphaelitism
in Victorian art, chiefly characterized by pseudo-medieval subjects
and ethereal female beauties painted by Sir Edward Burne-Jones
(1833-1898) and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. John William Waterhouse
(1849-1917), Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836-1912), and John Melhuish
Strudwick (1849-1937) are among the later exponents of this tradition.
Paintings by Pre-Raphaelites:
William Dyce (Scottish, 1806-1864), Madonna and Child, c. 1827-30, oil on canvas, 102.9 x 80.6 cm, Tate Gallery, London. Dyce was a precursor to the Pre-Raphaelites, and, as member of the Royal Academy, an early supporter of the movement. Also see Scottish art.
John Rogers Herbert (English, 1810-1890).
Ford Madox Brown (English, 1821-1893), Jesus Washing Peter's Feet, 1852-6, oil on canvas, 116.8 x 133.3 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Ford Madox Brown, Chaucer at the Court of Edward III, 1856-68, oil on canvas, 123.2 x 99.1 cm, Tate Gallery, London. See history painting.
William Holman Hunt (English, 1827-1910), Our English Coasts, 1852 ('Strayed Sheep'), 1852, oil on canvas, 43.2 x 58.4 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
William Holman Hunt, The Awakening Conscience, 1853, oil on canvas, 76.2 x 55.9 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti (English, 1828-1882), Ecce Ancilla Domini! (The Annunciation), 1849-50, oil on canvas, 72.4 x 41.9 cm, Tate Gallery, London. See a drawing Rossetti made as a study for this painting of Mary.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Fanny Cornforth, 1859, pencil on paper, 14.0 x 14.6 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Lucrezia Borgia, 1860-1, pencil and watercolor on paper, 43.8 x 25.8 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Woman in Yellow, 1863, watercolor on paper, 40.6 x 30.5 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Beata Beatrix, c. 1864-70, oil on canvas, 86.4 x 66.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Lady Lilith, 1867, watercolor, bodycolor and gum, 20 3/16 x 17 5/16 inches, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Venus Venticordia, painting.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Proserpine, 1874, oil on canvas, 125.1 x 61.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London. Most of the pictures for which Rossetti is famous are of a single woman, Jane Burden Morris, the wife of William Morris, leader of England's Arts and Crafts Movement. She posed for Proserpine.
Sir John Everett Millais Bt.,P.R.A. (English, 1829-1896), Christ in the House of His Parents or The Carpenter's Shop, 1849-50, oil on canvas, 86.4 x 139.7 cm, Tate Gallery, London. See Millais' Study for `Christ in the House of His Parents', c. 1849, pencil on paper, 19.0 x 33.7 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Sir John Everett Millais, Ophelia, 1851-2, oil on canvas, 76.2 x 111.8 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Sir John Everett Millais, Peace Concluded, 1856, 1856, oil on canvas, 46 x 36 inches, Minneapolis Institute of Arts.
Anthony Frederick Sandys (English, 1829-1904).
William Shakespeare Burton (English, 1830-1916).
Frederick Lord Leighton (Sir Frederick Leighton) (English, 1830-1896), Lieder ohne Worte, 1861, oil on canvas, 101.6 x 62.9 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Frederick Lord Leighton, The Bath of Psyche, 1890, oil on canvas, 189.2 x 62.2 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Benjamin Williams Leader (English, 1831-1923).
Arthur Hughes (English, 1832-1915), April Love, 1855-6, oil on canvas, 88.9 x 49.5 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Arthur Hughes, Aurora Leigh's Dismissal of Romney ('The Tryst'), 1860, oil on board, 39.4 x 31.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones (English, 1833-1898), The Three Graces, painting. See stained glass.
Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, Sidonia von Bork, 1860, watercolor and gouache on paper, 33.3 x 17.1 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, Fair Rosamund and Queen Eleanor, 1862, pen and ink, watercolor, gouache and gum on paper, 26.0 x 27.3 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, Frieze of Eight Women Gathering Apples, 1876, painting, 73.7 x 182.9 cm, Tate Gallery, London. See frieze.
Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, The Golden Stairs, 1880, oil on canvas, 269.2 x 116.8 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (English, 1836-1912).
Henry Holiday (English, 1839-1927).
Albert Joseph Moore (English, 1841-1893).
John William Waterhouse (English, 1849-1917), Hylas and the Nymphs, painting.
John Collier (English, 1850-1934), In the Venusberg, painting.
John Byam Liston Shaw (English, 1872-1919).
Also see aestheticism, Art Nouveau, Arts and Crafts Movement, fin de siècle, Orientalism, Romanticism, and Symbolism.